This is Part 2 of a two-part series. The previous installment discussed the effects of nicotine, flavourings and other ingredients in e-liquids.
Clinical effects of EC
Lung immune response is altered by e-cigarette (EC) usage, impairing innate immunity, altering bacterial defenses, causing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Exposure to EC increases neutrophils and alters mucin secretion. Staudt et al suggested that EC may be toxic to . . . Read More
Vaping, so called because it consists of inhaling the vapour emitted by a device, usually involves a variety of electronic vapour-producing products including e-cigarettes (EC), e-cigars, e-pipes, e-hookahs, hookah pens, vape pens and vaping pipes. Vaping is the fashionable new way to smoke without actually placing a conventional tobacco cigarette (CC) between one’s lips.
The design and flavours of the vapour-emitting materials are deliberately targeted towards young people, as is the marketing, which suggests EC are . . . Read More
Part 1 of this series titled When Breathing is Bad for You explained how air quality is measured and the effects of air pollution on mortality. Part 2 described its effects on the fetus, the DNA damage incurred and the effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Part Part 3 continues the list of other effects of air pollution.
While pollutants such as NO2, CO, O3 and SO2 did not have a significant effect, PM 2.5 did. Within hours of exposure to PM 2.5 levels considered safe by the EPA, the risk of ischemic stroke rises. . . . Read More
Air pollution affects both morbidity and mortality. The level of pollutants varies with location, altitude, temperature and wind patterns. The effect of air pollution is equally variable, the more susceptible an individual, the greater the effects of pollution. Exposure to high density traffic – nearness to roads with high traffic volumes as well as high diesel exhaust levels – also contribute to . . . Read More
Who hasn’t see pictures of air pollution in cities like Beijing and New Delhi where the air is grey and visibility is extremely poor? Air pollution is known to be bad for health, particularly respiratory and cardiovascular health. It is the fifth leading risk cause for world-wide mortality. It has both short-term . . . Read More
Asthma has high associated costs – direct, indirect and supplementary. Direct costs include hospitalizations, visits to Emergency Rooms, visits to offices of health care providers, medications, and related expenses, while indirect costs include missed school and work days, reduced productivity, loss of . . . Read More
Inhalation devices used in asthma to deliver medication are designed to get the medication directly into the lungs. Numerous medications and a variety of devices exist, and each requires a series of complicated preparatory steps before the medication is actually delivered. Failure to complete these steps results in inadequate dosages being administered, and this in turn can result in acute episodes of asthma. Read More
When patients fail to adhere to prescribed medical regimens, the fault lies as much with them as with healthcare providers . . . . Read More
The link between asthma, nasal polyps and aspirin sensitivity, also referred to as Samter’s triad, has long been known. Aspirin belongs to the class of medications known as . . . Read More
Non-steroid anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are not regarded with the same degree of apprehension as prescribed medications. Yet they are medications. More than 30 million Americans use them daily. NSAIDS are used to treat fever, acute and . . . Read More
The answer is: people of all ages. 180,000 people across the world die from asthma each year. The United States records about 70 deaths a week, most of them preventable. In the United Kingdom, 20 persons die each week. The question hence arises: why were these deathsnot prevented?
A study by the British Thoracic Association of 90 asthma deaths found that 74% occurred because patients underestimated the severity of the disease. In 36 instances, the patients saw a health care provider . . .
There is one further complication when dealing with the elderly. It may be that they feel they are wasting a health care provider’s (HCP) time; or they may feel that the situation is not serious enough to warrant a visit to their HCP; or they seek advice from friends to the extent that they are known to not only take medication that has been prescribed for themselves but also . . . Read More
Polypharmacy is generally defined as the use of at least five prescription medications. Rarely are patients, particularly the elderly (from 62 to 85 years), asked about the over-the-counter (OTC) medications that they use. Yet, OTC medications are medications that are considered safe and effective for use by the general public and hence . . . Read More
Does what you do for a living increase your risk of asthma? About 11 million American workers may have occupational asthma. Recent studies have further highlighted the connection between occupation and the risk of asthma. Over 360 substances have been linked to the development of asthma with anywhere from 50% to 90% of cases due to . . . Read More
Parents and children listed other symptoms that herald an asthma exacerbation. They listed the early markers of an exacerbation as headache, stomach ache, fatigue, dizziness, throat pain, throat tightening, and malaise. When asked how they knew their children were having an asthma exacerbation, they provided the following observations: Read More
Medical terminology has held both a degree of fascination and intimidation for patients who are unfamiliar with it. Between health care professionals, the use of terminology is deliberate and easily understood. It aids communication and becomes a shorthand for conveying a volume of information in a few words. However, while it is helpful for health care professionals, one needs to carefully examine and even question . . . Read More
Asthma has been defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by airway obstruction which is at least partially reversible with or without medication, and increased bronchial responsiveness to a variety of stimuli.1 Today, the primary emphasis in treatment is on the reduction of inflammation. Inflammation is the body's response to injury or . . . Read More
For asthmatic children with allergies to food the statement that what you eat affects breathing is simple to understand. Allergic reactions to food that cause respiratory symptoms are also known in occupational asthma. The allergic response can affect not only the skin and gastrointestinal tract but can be a trigger for asthma resulting in symptoms such . . . Read More
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (“CAM”), also known as Integrative Medicine, is a diverse field covering a variety of treatments that are provided by practitioners with varying degrees of training. CAM can be classified into five areas that include:
1) alternative medical systems
2) biologic-based therapies
3) energy therapies . . .
The acronym FACE is a quick and easy way to remember that PCC involves the four factors that make PCC possible. Read More
F is for Focused. This requires that the HCP be focused on the patient, not on faculty, academia, research or on . . .