Decades of research have conclusively documented the evils and devastating health effects associated with conventional cigarettes (CC), cigars, e-cigarettes (EC) and chewing tobacco. Many lawsuits have successfully been filed against tobacco companies, both by individuals and governments. Despite this, the tobacco . . .Read More
This is Part 2 of a two-part series. The previous installment discussed the effects of nicotine, flavourings and other ingredients in e-liquids.
Clinical effects of EC
Lung immune response is altered by e-cigarette (EC) usage, impairing innate immunity, altering bacterial defenses, causing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Exposure to EC increases neutrophils and alters mucin secretion. Staudt et al suggested that EC may be toxic to . . .Read More
Vaping, so called because it consists of inhaling the vapour emitted by a device, usually involves a variety of electronic vapour-producing products including e-cigarettes (EC), e-cigars, e-pipes, e-hookahs, hookah pens, vape pens and vaping pipes. Vaping is the fashionable new way to smoke without actually placing a conventional tobacco cigarette (CC) between one’s lips.
The design and flavours of the vapour-emitting materials are deliberately targeted towards young people, as is the marketing, which suggests EC are . . .Read More
Part 1 of this series titled When Breathing is Bad for You explained how air quality is measured and the effects of air pollution on mortality. Part 2 described its effects on the fetus, the DNA damage incurred and the effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Part Part 3 continues the list of other effects of air pollution.
While pollutants such as NO2, CO, O3 and SO2 did not have a significant effect, PM 2.5 did. Within hours of exposure to PM 2.5 levels considered safe by the EPA, the risk of ischemic stroke rises. . . .Read More
Air pollution affects both morbidity and mortality. The level of pollutants varies with location, altitude, temperature and wind patterns. The effect of air pollution is equally variable, the more susceptible an individual, the greater the effects of pollution. Exposure to high density traffic – nearness to roads with high traffic volumes as well as high diesel exhaust levels – also contribute to . . .Read More